These articles were published in the Mariner Newspapers (Community Newspaper Company) beginning in May 1996. They appeared -- and continue to appear -- at least once a month, courtesy of the North and South Rivers Watershed Association. For more info on NSRWA visit their website, www.nsrwa.org
It’s a common dilemma among parents. You
teach your child how to ride his bike, and soon the confines of the driveway or
the neighborhood are too limiting. You’d like to go farther afield but the main
roads are too busy or too narrow to attempt with a child. Where else can you
go, to help your youngster develop cycling skills and confidence? One easy
answer is Wompatuck State Park in
Hingham (204 Union Street).
I have to admit, until recently I was only
familiar with Wompatuck as a campground. I stayed there once, many years ago,
but it was sunset when I arrived and I didn’t have a chance to explore. It
turns out that the park has a lot more to offer than rustic overnight
accommodations (262 campsites, more than half with electricity).
Managed by the Massachusetts Department of
Conservation and Recreation (DCR), Wompatuck State Park is comprised of 3526
acres. In addition to the campsites, there are numerous woodland trails for
hiking, dog-walking, horseback riding, and cross-country skiing. For mountain bikers,
the park is home to one of the
longest section of switchbacked singletrack in the state. There’s also a
reservoir for fishing and non-motorized boating, a small area for hunting (in
season), and plenty of terrain for birders and other wildlife enthusiasts.
And most notably, for parents seeking a
relatively safe place to bring the kids and their bikes, there are 12 miles of
paved bicycling trails! My son and I joined friends at Wompatuck one afternoon
during school vacation, and we managed to fill two hours, exploring. The trails
are nice and wide -- some flat and some quite hilly. They mostly run through
the woods, occasionally crossing old railroad tracks or passing by relics from
the park’s earlier days as a military ammunition depot. There was plenty to
see, and plenty to keep us occupied. There was even a well-placed porta-potty
(always appreciated when children are involved).
Access to the bike trails is just inside the
park entrance, on the left, across from the visitor center. There is a large
parking area with a kiosk at the far end. I strongly recommend taking a map
(you can also download one from the websites of both the DCR and The Friends of
Wompatuck). There are quite a number of trails!
excellent option to consider is Pond Meadow
Park on the Weymouth-Braintree line (470 Liberty Street, Braintree).
Visible from Route 3, this 320-acre park features a large pond surrounded by a
child-friendly paved biking trail two miles in length, as well as various
opportunities for hiking and nature study.
Pond Meadow Park has an interesting history. Before
it officially opened in 1976, it was privately-owned land containing a small
pond and a large number of derelict cars . . . plus way too much garbage. A
group of concerned citizens, along with state senators and representatives,
worked together to gain title to the land, cleaned it up, and built a dam to
control flooding in Weymouth Landing (downstream). Four years of work resulted
in the creation of what is now a very popular nature preserve. The park
contains a few miles of paved and wooded trails, a picnic area, and ample
parking. It is staffed by two rangers and – hooray! – there are public
Turkey footprints in the snow. You can't tell by the photo, but they're quite large!
One morning before sunrise, I heard the
strangest sound. It was a gurgling noise, medium-pitched, definitely from an
animal . . . and it sounded like it was coming from up in the trees. Wondering
for a moment if the neighbors had gotten chickens, it came to me. It wasn’t a
gurgle, it was a gobble! Turkeys.
Last fall wild turkeys were everywhere – or
at least that’s how it seemed here in my neighborhood in Marshfield. Our
property borders woods and wetlands, so we see all sorts of creatures pass
through. At first the turkeys roamed in flocks of up to 50 – yes, fifty! – but
the numbers decreased dramatically as the season wore on. Given the bold way
they crossed even the busiest roads, I imagine the thinning was due as much to
jaywalking as predation.
We didn’t see much of them as winter began,
but after the first major snowfall in January, they were back. Perhaps they
were here all along, lying low. Perhaps the snow drove them out of their
natural habitat and onto the roads – the only bare ground available. I was
often amused to see them racing up the street ahead of my car -- their own
version of our annual Turkey Trot?
By early March, the turkeys had taken up
residence in our backyard. We fed the (other) birds religiously this winter, so
the snow under the feeders became littered with black sunflower shells. The
turkeys discovered this and henceforth our yard became a regular stop on their
morning rounds. They’d hang out on the snow drifts (and later, ice mounds)
below the feeders, and then eventually move to the small spot of bare ground in
the front yard, rooting around and leaving us “gifts” on the lawn.
The wild turkey is a large bird. Mature males
weigh in the range of 16-24 pounds, with females typically half that size. Both
have long scaly legs. The male has a coarse hairy “beard” protruding from its
You might not recognize a wild turkey right
away because it doesn’t quite resemble our iconic Thanksgiving mascot. It’s
more streamlined, less colorful. Wild turkeys are black or bronze, with white
bars on their wings. Their heads are bluish gray, except in certain moods when
they turn red. However when a male displays its plumage, it’s quite familiar –
puffed out and iridescently colorful, with red, green, copper and gold. (The females
are duller in color.)
A wild turkey surveys the snowy landscape, in search of sustenance.
Wild turkeys gather in flocks, where there is
a determined pecking order. Certain males (toms or gobblers) and females (hens)
assume dominant roles, while others have fewer privileges. For example, the
more mature males typically are first in line for mating, crowding the juveniles
(jakes) out of the way.
Speaking of mating . . . ‘tis the season
right now! In our area, wild turkeys begin to feel that primal urge in mid-March.
It continues through the spring, peaking in late April or early May. Turkeys
court in groups, the toms mating with as many hens as they can. First a tom
will gobble to announce its presence. Then a hen will yelp in response, to
reveal its location. Then a tom will display -- puffing out its feathers,
spreading its tail, and dragging its wings – strutting all the while. They find
each other and the dance begins. (You can find videos on YouTube if you really
want to know . . . )
A hen lays eggs after her first congress of
the season (she may mate more than once). First she creates a nest on the
ground in a wooded area. The nest is not very deep – just a shallow depression
that she lines with leaves. In it, she will lay an average of 12-15 eggs, one
per day, and then sit with them, occasionally turning them, until they have
incubated fully (27 or 28 days). Fewer than half of the hatchlings survive.
Cold wet weather and predators such as foxes, coyotes, raccoons, skunks and
other rodents, snakes, and hawks keep the numbers low.
By early June, the hens and their broods are
out and about. The young stay with their mothers throughout the summer and into
the fall – generally for four to five months, although the females may stick
around longer. Due to predation, only about half of the chicks will survive
their first six months.
Wild turkeys enjoy a wide variety of foods.
The young feed primarily on insects, while the older birds consume acorns,
nuts, seeds, berries, tubers and other plant materials. You may even see them
snacking on skunk cabbage.
Wild turkeys are active during the day, when
their vision is good. At night, they fly up into the relative safety of tall trees,
to roost. Have you seen wild turkey in flight? They are not graceful birds. “Ungainly”
might be the best descriptor. Typically they fly close to the ground, and for
short distances (up to a quarter mile). However they are capable of flying
55mph. They can run about half that speed.
Mass Wildlife publishes an excellent website
with information about many of the creatures who make their home in our state (see
links below.) A full page is dedicated to “Preventing Conflicts with Wild
Turkeys,” which gives you some indication of the trouble they can cause. In
short, it’s best not to feed them. They have access to plenty of natural food
sources, but if you let them become accustomed to your own supply, they may
become reliant on it. Moreover, they will make a nuisance of themselves –
damaging your property (peck, peck, peck!) and leaving behind waste.
If you encounter a wild turkey, Mass Wildlife
recommends that you maintain the upper hand. Once a turkey knows it can intimidate
you, it will not back down. Turkeys classify other animals based on their
behavior, so your actions will determine where you fit into their pecking order.
Act male – be bold and don’t let them bully you. If you behave more submissively,
they may display at you, peck at or follow you, or harass you with the intent
to mate. The idea is amusing, but it might not be fun in real life.
Kezia Bacon's articles
appear courtesy of the North and South Rivers Watershed Association, a local
non-profit organization devoted to the preservation, restoration, maintenance
and conservation of the North and South Rivers and their watershed. For membership
information and a copy of their latest newsletter, contact NSRWA at (781)
659-8168 or visit www.nsrwa.org. To browse 15 years of Nature (Human and
Otherwise) columns, visit http://keziabaconbernstein.blogspot.com